cesium beam planning


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Around-the-World Atomic Clocks: Observed Relativistic …

Around-the-World Atomic Clocks: Observed Relativistic Time Gains Abstract. Four cesiumt beam clocks flown around the world on commercial jet flights during October 1971, once eastward and once westward, recorded directionally dependent time differences which are in good agreement with predic-

PowerPoint Presentation

SIM TFMWG Workshop and Planning Meeting 2017. UTC(NIST) is the local realization of UTC. The UTC(NIST) time scale consists of an ensemble of hydrogen masers and cesium clocks. NIST maintains and operates UTC(NIST) and the U. S. Primary Frequency Standards, cesium fountain devices F1 and F2. The time transfer links between NIST and BIPM are based on

Atomic Clock - Assignment Point

Atomic clock" (or "cesium-beam frequency standard") is a device that uses as a reference the exact frequency of the microwave spectral line emitted by atoms of the metallic element cesium, in particular its isotope of atomic weight 133 ("Cs-133").

Use of Cesium-131 radioactive seeds in prostate permanent ...

Recently, a new cesium -131 (131 Cs) radioactive seed has been introduced (Iso Ray, Richmond, WA) in the clinical practice for permanent seed implants of early prostate cancer. 131 Cs is a 4.5 mm × 0.8 mm seed, titanium - encased ceramic with gold wire.

Hydrogen Masers and Cesium Fountains

development of these cesium beam tubes had been facilitated by the availability of the hydrogen masers. By increasing the intensity'of the cesium beam, the short term stability of these clocks from 3 x 10-12~-1/2 can be pushed to better than 8 x 10-'~3--~/~. The good medium term stability


THE STATUS OF CESIUM BEAM FREQUENCY STANDARDS Leonard S. Cutler Hewlett-Packard Laboratories Palo Alto, California Abstract There har been a lot ofprogress in cesium beam frequenq standards in the kt few years some of which will be reported here. Optical pumping is being pursued actively in u number of lahorufories. Optically

How to Care for a Patient with Internal Radiation Implants ...

Patients with cancer undergo different types of treatment from chemotherapy to radiation. radiation may be external where therapy is irradiated ont a patient or internal where radiation materials are inserted into a patient. The nurse caring for a patient with internal radiation implants has to take proper precautions when carrying nursing interventions.

QM Test 2: Brachytherapy and Treatment Planning - Quizlet

Start studying QM Test 2: Brachytherapy and Treatment Planning. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. ... -enter beam data into treatment planning computer ... What is the most common form of Cesium? Cesium-137. How is Cesium-137 excreted? through urine. Cesium …

Deciphering Brachytherapy Coding and Documentation

Complex planning requires highly complex blocking, custom shielding blocks, tangential ports, special wedges or compensators, three or more separate treatment areas, rotational or special beam considerations, combination of therapeutic modalities.

A NEW THE CESIUM BEAM TUBE - apps.dtic.mil

A NEW TECHNIQUE FOR THE ON-ORBIT CHARACTERIZATION OF CESIUM BEAM TUBE PERFORMANCE S. K. Karuza, J. P. Hurrell, and W. A. Johnson Electronics Research Labor ator y The Aerospace Corporation P. 0.Box 92957 Los Angeles, CA 90009 1 ABSTRACT A number of cesium beam tube atomic standards have exhibited a decreasing beam tube current with time. No test …

Performance of preproduction model cesium beam frequency ...

A cesium beam frequency standards for spaceflight application on Navigation Development Satellites was designed and fabricated and preliminary testing was completed. The cesium standard evolved from an earlier prototype model launched aboard NTS-2 and the engineering development model to be launched aboard NTS satellites during 1979.

"Atomic" Clock - 4Physics.com

A "cesium(-beam) atomic clock" (or "cesium-beam frequency standard") is a device that uses as a reference the exact frequency of the microwave spectral line emitted by atoms of the metallic element cesium, in particular its isotope of atomic weight 133 ("Cs-133").

UW Translational Precision Radiation Core - UW Research

In addition, the core also has a cesium gamma irradiator available for cell and small animal irradiation when this precision is not required. Unique to the UW system, a beam of protons is also available for experiments as needed. The beam size can be controlled down to 2 …

F.T.S. Cesium-Beam Frequency Standard | National Museum of ...

Martin W. Levine, "Performance of a Preproduction Model Cesium Beam Frequency Standards for Spacecraft Applications," Proc. of the 10th Ann. Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Appl. and Planning Meeting, 1978, 169-193. Brief description of an atomic clock


The design criteria for developing the small cesium beam tube specified that it be smaller, weigh less, and have lower power consumption and shorter warm-up time than cesium beam tubes available at the time. The small tube was to be rugged and have comparable performance to the much longer HP 5061A cesium beam tube (see Fig. 2).

June 9, 2009 - PHMSA

June 9, 2009 U.S. Department East Building, PHH – 30 ... described as the following: cesium beam tubes, cesium beam frequency standards, and primary frequency standards. (1) The cesium beam tube consists of an inner nickel cylinder enclosed within an outer stainless steel, welded, hermetically sealed cylinder as described in ...

Caesium - Wikipedia

Caesium (IUPAC spelling) (also spelled cesium (American spelling)) is a chemical element with the symbol Cs and atomic number 55. It is a soft, silvery-golden alkali metal with a melting point of 28.5 °C (83.3 °F), which makes it one of only five elemental metals that are liquid at or near room temperature.

Cesium 131 Brachytherapy - Find Cesium Pioneers

Transition concerns should not stop you from adding Cesium to your prostate brachytherapy practice. With a thoughtful approach to planning and the right support, you can seamlessly upgrade your prostate brachytherapy to the power of Cesium.

HP 5062C - Leap second

Cesium Beam Tube. Physics of the Cesium Beam Tube. From the block diagram description of the 5062C we might consider the cesium beam tube to be acting as though it were a frequency discriminator (or a bandpass filter) with a very narrow response curve in the vicinity of the transition frequency, f 0. How discriminator action comes about will be ...

Brachytherapy in the treatment of cervical cancer: a review

May 28, 2014· The aim of this review is to explore current best practice and state-of-the-art developments in cervical cancer brachytherapy, including patient selection, applicator selection, operative technique, and radiation treatment planning. It is intended for those with a general interest in the treatment of cervical cancer.

Brachytherapy in the treatment of cervical cancer: a review

Jan 16, 2014· Brachytherapy in the treatment of cervical cancer: a review Robyn Banerjee,1 Mitchell Kamrava21Department of Radiation Oncology, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, Alberta, Canada; 2Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USAAbstract: Dramatic advances have been made in brachytherapy for cervical cancer.

Brachytherapy (Radioactive Seed Implantation Therapy) in ...

Apr 19, 2017· Brachytherapy (the term is derived from the Greek word brachys, which means brief or short) refers to cancer treatment with ionizing radiation delivered via radioactive material placed a short distance from, or within, the tumor. In prostate cancer, brachytherapy involves the ultrasound- and template-guided insertion of radioactive seeds into...

CsIII Model 4310B | Microsemi

Overview Lightweight, compact, economical cesium frequency standard Weighing less than 30 pounds, the CSIII Model 4310B delivers higher stability, lower phase noise and longer life for demanding users in communications, timing, synchronization and other applications.

Cesium: A bibliography update - ScienceDirect

The bibliography searched indicates an interesting pharmacological and behavioral effect for Cs-salts in addition to its well known physiological and itopic effects. A pattern of clinical trials suggests the potential of cesium salts in certain cancer therapies, affective disorders, tumor imaging, radiotherapy and certain cardiovascular usages.

How Does a Practical Cesium Atomic Clock Work? - How ...

Cesium 133 is the element most commonly chosen for atomic clocks. To turn the cesium atomic resonance into an atomic clock, it is necessary to measure one of its transition or resonant frequencies accurately. This is normally done by locking a crystal oscillator to the principal microwave resonance of the cesium atom.


APPENDIX A SHIPBOARD COMMUNICATIONS EQUIPMENT ... submarines. The TFDS hardware will be an NDI. The TFDS will be capable of automatic or manual selection of inputs from cesium beam standards (O-1824/U or O-1695/U) or GPS. Using inputs from the selected external standard, TFDS will be capable of distributing up to 20 5-MHz square wave (SW), 5 1 ...

CESIUM ATOMIC CLOCKS - tycho.usno.navy.mil

A "cesium(-beam) atomic clock" (or "cesium-beam frequency standard") is a device that uses as a reference the exact frequency of the microwave spectral line emitted by atoms of the metallic element cesium, in particular its isotope of atomic weight 133 ("Cs-133").

Leonard Cutler - Wikipedia

Leonard Cutler (1928–2006), also known as Leonard S. Cutler, was a pioneer and authority on ultra-precise timekeeping devices and standards, and was well known for his work with quantum-mechanical effects. He was the co-inventor of the HP5060A Cesium Beam Clock, its successor the HP 5071A, and the two-frequency laser inferometer.

Publications by David W. Allan -- Physics of Time-keeping

David W. Allan has authored over 100 papers in the field of precise time and frequency. He and his colleagues developed the Allan Variance which is at the heart of international time-keeping algorithms. He is in process of writing a college text book on time for John Wiley and Sons.

Brachytherapy (Internal radiation therapy) - RadiologyInfo.org

What is brachytherapy and how is it used? External beam radiation therapy (EBRT) directs high-energy x-ray beams at a tumor from outside the body. Brachytherapy, also called internal radiation therapy, places radioactive material directly inside or next to the tumor. It uses a higher total dose of radiation to treat a smaller area in less time than EBRT.